State of the Education Report for India: No Teacher, No Class-UNESCO

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Today, on World Teacher's Day, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) released its 2021 State of the Education Report (SOER) for India, titled "No Teacher, No Class."

According to a UNESCO report issued on Tuesday, the country has almost 1.2 lakh single-teacher schools, with 89 percent of them located in rural regions. According to the research, India would require an additional 11.16 lakh teachers to make up for the existing shortage.

The results of the study, titled ‘State of the Education Report for India-2021,' are based on an examination of data from the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) and the Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE). It was prepared by a team of specialists from the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, chaired by Prof Padma M Sarangapani, in collaboration with a UNESCO team.

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Highlights of the reports.

  • According to the report's estimations based on PLFS 2018-19 data, there are 1,10,971 single-teacher schools across states, accounting for 7.15 percent of 11.51 lakh schools and 95 lakh instructors.
  • Rural regions represent for 89% of these single-teacher schools.
  •  Arunachal Pradesh (18.22%), Goa (16.08%), Telangana (15.71%), Andhra Pradesh (14.4%), Jharkhand (13.81%), and Uttarakhand (13.81%) are among the states having a high rate of single-teacher schools (13.64 per cent)
  • Madhya Pradesh (13.08%) and Rajasthan (10.08%), according to the study.
The proportion of female instructors in rural areas
  • Women make up 28% of primary school teachers in rural regions, compared to 63% in metropolitan ones. 
  • Early childhood education instructors, on the other hand, are mostly women, with 88 percent of them working in rural regions. 
  • Women make up 24 percent of secondary school teachers in rural regions, compared to 53 percent in metropolitan ones.”
The proportion of teachers employed in the private sector
  • According to the report, the percentage of teachers engaged in the private sector increased from 21% in 2013-14 to 35% in 2018-19. According to the report, the demand for instructors at these institutions decreased by 10%, compared to 6% in government schools. 
  • The Right to Education Act mandates a pupil-to-teacher ratio (PTR) of 30:1 in grades 1–5 and 35:1 in years 6–12.
Teacher Requirement 
  • The overall additional teacher demand is estimated to be at 1,116,846 based on a PTR of 35:1, according to the study. “Rural regions are responsible for 69% of the overall extra teacher demand. 
  • Uttar Pradesh (320,000) and Bihar (220,000), respectively, have substantial requirements, followed by Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal (between 60,000 and 80,000).

Average Salary of Private School Teacher 
  • According to PLFS statistics, the average pay of private school teachers in the country (including primary and secondary) is Rs 13,564, with rural private school teachers earning less at Rs 11,584. 
  • In rural private schools, women instructors earn an average of Rs 8212 per month.
The study closes with a series of 10 action-oriented suggestions to address the problems facing India's teaching profession and therefore contribute to the NEP 2020 vision and aim of "ensuring excellent education for all."
  • Improve the terms of employment of teachers in both public and private schools
  • Increase the number of teachers and improve working conditions in North Eastern states, rural areas and 'aspirational districts' 
  • Recognize teachers as frontline workers 
  • Increase the number of physical education, music, art, vocational education, early childhood and special education teachers. 
  • Value the professional autonomy of teachers
  • Build teachers' career pathways
  • Restructure pre-service professional development and strengthen curricular and pedagogical reform
  • Support communities of practice
  • Provide teachers with meaningful ICT training
  • Develop teaching governance through consultative processes, based on mutual accountability.

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